The following factors can increase the likelihood of bladder inflammation (cystitis):
Weakened immune system
If the immune system is weakened by stress, hypothermia or a cold, then the risk of a urinary tract infection is increased.
Volume of fluid intake
An inadequate fluid intake with incomplete bladder emptying can increase the risk of bladder inflammation. Drink at least two litres of water a day. This can help to wash out infectious organisms promptly.
What lies behind this phenomenon? Following sexual intercourse, the female urogenital tract is exposed to previously unknown bacteria – from the man – and the immune system is not yet sufficiently adjusted to these microbes. The foreign bacteria can lead to irritation and inflammation in the urinary tract. The immune system must adjust to the foreign bacteria coming from the partner when engaging with a new partner or following a prolonged period of abstinence.
An incorrect «wiping technique» after a bowel movement. Wiping from back to front can transport gut bacteria in the direction of the urethral entrance.
Inappropriate intimate care
Excessively frequent washing can damage the acidic protective barrier of the skin. The best agents are pH-neutral or acidic washing lotions.
During pregnancy, the hormonal balance changes. An undesired consequence of this is that the urinary passages widen and, consequently, microbes may penetrate more easily into the urethra.
The metabolic disease diabetes weakens the microbial resistance of mucous membranes and bacteria can stick more readily to the mucosal cells.
During menopause, oestrogen deficiency can also promote bladder inflammation.
Vaginal diaphragms and spermicides change the vaginal flora.
Long-term catheters cause mechanical irritation of the bladder. In addition, they produce an open connection between the urinary tract and the outside, which allows bacteria to reach the urethra.
Preventative measures to avoid bladder diseases are advisable. You can go here to learn about preventative measures.